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Bertolaccini L, Viti A, Paiano S, Pomari C, Assante LR, Terzi A.
Indwelling Pleural Catheters: A Clinical Option in Trapped Lung. Thorac Surg Clin. 2017 Feb;27(1):47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg. 2016.08.008.

Bertolaccini L, Viti A, Paiano S, Pomari C, Assante LR, Terzi A.
Indwelling Pleural Catheters: A Clinical Option in Trapped Lung. Thorac Surg Clin. 2017 Feb;27(1):47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg. 2016.08.008.

Bertolaccini L, Viti A, Paiano S, Pomari C, Assante LR, Terzi A. Indwelling Pleural Catheters: A Clinical Option in Trapped Lung. Thorac Surg Clin. 2017 Feb;27(1):47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2016.08.008.

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) symptoms have a real impact on quality of life. Surgical approach through video-assisted thoracic surgery provides a first step in palliation. In patients unfit for general anesthesia, awake pleuroscopy represents an alternative. Sclerosing agents can be administered at the bedside through a chest tube. Ideal treatment of MPE should include adequate long-term symptom relief, minimize hospitalization, and reduce adverse effects. Indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) allows outpatient management of MPE through periodic ambulatory fluid drainage. IPC offers advantages over pleurodesis in patients with poor functional status who cannot tolerate pleurodesis or in patients with trapped lungs.

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